Indian History
General Knowledge

Mahatma Gandhi Era

( 1917 - 47 )

Mahatma Gandhi Era ( 1869 - 1948 )

Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa ( 1893 - 1914 )
1893 Departure of Gandhi to South Africa
1894 Foundation of Natal Indian Congress
1899 Foundation of Indian Ambulance Core during Boer Wars
1904 Foundation of Indian Opinion (magazine) and Phoenix Farm at Phoenix near Durban.
1906 First Civil Disobedience Movement (Satyagraha) against Asiatic Ordinance in Transvaal.
1907 Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration and Passes for Asians (The Black Act) in Transvaal.
1908 Trial and imprisonment-Johannesburg Jail (First Jail Term).
1910 Foundation of Tolstoy Farm (Later Gandhi Ashrama ) near Johannesburg.
1913 Satyagraha against derecognition of non Christian marriages in Cape Town.
1914 Quits South Africa forever and returns to India, Awarded Kaisar-i-Hind for raising an Indian Ambulance Core during Boer wars.
Mahatma Gandhi in India ( 1915 - 1948 )
1915 Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 Jan, 1915; Foundation of Satyagraha Ashramaat at Kocharab near Ahmedabad (20 May); In 1917, Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati; All India tour.
1916 Abstain from active polities (through he attended Lucknow session of INC held in 26 - 30 Dec., 1916, where Raj Kumar Shukla, a cultivator from Bihar, requested him to come to Champaran.)
1917 Gandhi entered active politics Champaran campaign to redress grievances he cultivators oppressed by Indigo planters of Bihar (April 1917). Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
1918 In Feb. 1918, Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmedabad which involved industrial workers. Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle. In March 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujarat who were facing difficulties in Paying the rent owing to failure of crops.
Kheda Satyagraha was his first Non-Cooperation Movement
1919 Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Acton April 6, 1919 and movement for the first time (First all-India Political Movement), Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre April 13,1919; The All India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (Nov. 1919, Delhi)
1920-22 Gandhi leads the Non - Cooperation and Khllafat Movement (Aug. 1, 1920-Feb., 1922), Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chauri- Chaura on Feb. 5, 1922. Non-Cooperation Movement was the First mass based politics under Gandhi.
1924 Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INC-for the first and the last time Gandhi was elected the president of the Congress.
1925-27 Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to 'constructive programme’ of the Congress; Gandhi resumes active politics in 1927.
1930-34 Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandi march / Salt Satyagraha (First Phase : March 12,1930-March5,1931; Gandhi – lrwin Pact : March 5, 1931; Gandhi attends the Second Round Table Conference in London as sole representative of the Congress : Sep. 7 - Dec. 1,1931; Second Phase : Jan. 3,1932 -April 17,1934)
1934-39 Gandhi retires from active politics, sets up Seva gram (Vardha Ashram).
1939 Gandhi resumes active politics.
1940-41 Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement.
1942 Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan, 'Do or Did (We shall either free India or die in the attempt), Gandhi and all Congress leaders arrested (Aug. 9,1942).
1942-44 Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace, near Pune (Aug. 9, 1942-May, 1944), Gandhi lost his wife Kasturba (Feb. 22,1944) and private secretary Mahadev Desai; this was Gandhi's last prison term.
1945 Gandhi's influence on the congress wanes perceptively after 1945.
1946 Deeply distressed by the orgy of communal violence, as a result Muslim League's Direct Action call, Gandhi travelled to Noakhali (East Bengal – now Bangladesh ) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace.
1947 Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan /Partition Plan (June 3,1947), while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observes complete silence on the dawn of India's Independence (Aug. 15, 1947). Gandhi returns to Delhi (Sep. 1947)
1948 Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, a member of RSS, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (Jan. 30,1948). He died, with 'Hey Ram' on his lips.